Blinded by the Light – Industries

Curran and Seaton’s power and media industries theory states that media products are owned by large conglomerates, resulting in a lack of creativity and thought. Blinded by the Light is an exception to this. It is an independent film, produced by Bend It Films, who aim to deliver “moving, inspiring and commercial” films to a global audience and “invite them to see the world from a new perspective”, especially from those “characters who are normally on the margins”. As Hesmondhalgh states, media is a risky business, and so one way in which Blinded by the Light attempts to reduce risk and maximise profit is through vertical and horizontal integration. They partnered with Levente Films, an independent motion picture company which develops, produces, and finances projects, as well as Ingenious Media which is “one of the largest independent investors in the UK’s creative sector” with an impressive record in financing critically and commercially successful films. Blinded by the Light premiered at the 2019 Sundance Film Festival, this showcased their work to critics and most importantly distributors; New Line Cinema acquired US distribution rights while the UK rights were bought by Entertainment One. 


James Curran

Jean Seaton


Vertical Integration







Noam Chomsky

War of the worlds and News beat

War of the world created moral panic within their audiences due to the expectancy and uncertainty within the broadcast itself.

Newsbeat is broadcasted on the BBC during random intervals throughout the day and is targeted for young adults but has more recently seen an audience of over 20s.

Opening paragraph.

In this essay I want to highlight Stuart Halls theory of encoding and decoding to create an understanding of producer audience relationships.

Due to the BBC charter Newsbeat has a set of rules and expectations to follow for example on the 5th page of the charter it states that “The BBC’s Object is the fulfilment of its Mission” suggesting that producers can only promote ideas that fit within their objectives for the publics benefit. Whereas War of the worlds didn’t have a charter to base itself off and so Orsen Wells encoded and idea of an alien invasion which created moral panic within the public breaking the producer audience relationship as there was no trust in what was being broadcasted was true and believable.

Radio Revisit – War of the Worlds + Newsbeat

War of the Worlds


RadioWar of the WorldsNewsbeat
SummaryOrson Welles’ adaption of “The War of the Worlds” provides a terrific introduction to the debate surrounding the media’s ability to influence the audience and shape our behaviour and beliefs. Performed live in 1938, the radio drama depicted a Martian invasion of earth, but the broadcast allegedly provoked widespread panic because many listeners thought the attack was real.Broadcasting since 1973 on BBC Radio 1, Newsbeat promises its younger listeners all the news they need to know from the UK and around the world. The energetic presenters ensure complex issues remain accessible to the target audience through their informal mode of address, interactive games, and audience participation, but can this traditional format continue to compete against podcasts and streaming apps?
Key FactsAlthough the story of interplanetary warfare is typical of the science fiction genre, it was presented within the format of normal evening of radio programming.
 There appears to be a routine report from the “Government Weather Bureau” about a “slight atmospheric disturbance” along the east coast of America. We are then “entertained by the music of Ramón Raquello and his orchestra” who are playing a tango from the Park Plaza Hotel. Even the “special bulletin from the Intercontinental Radio News”, which interrupts the music, met the expectations of the contemporary audience.

First, “The War of the Worlds” was aired by Columbia Broadcasting Systems (CBS) – one of only two national broadcasters who were trusted by millions of listeners every day to deliver reliable and impartial news. It is also important to note that CBS frequently interrupted scheduled programmes to inform their listeners of the latest updates from Europe. In the weeks prior to “The War of the Worlds” episode, the network reported on Hitler’s continued occupation Czechoslovakia and the inevitability of another global conflict.
The BBC is the largest public service broadcaster in the UK. According to the regulator, Ofcom, PSBs are tasked with “delivering impartial and trusted news, UK-originated programmes and distinctive content”. The BBC’s mission is outlined in its charter. The corporation has to provide “impartial, high-quality and distinctive output and services which inform, educate and entertain”. Newsbeat certainly satisfies these requirements with its focus on current affairs.

The main fifteen-minute Newsbeat programmes are transmitted live over digital audio broadcast (DAB) frequencies at 12:45 and 17:45 during most weekdays. You can listen to the latest stories, entertainment gossip and sport headlines by tuning into Radio 1, 1Xtra and the Asian Network. This simultaneous transmission is known as a simulcast. There are also shorter bulletins broadcast throughout the day, usually at thirty-minute intervals.
Key WordsMoral Panic, Genre, Hybrid Genre, Narrative, Science fiction trope, Hypodermic needle theory, Gerbner, cultivaion theory, Reception Theory, Stuart Hall, Encoding, Decoding, Reception Theory, Stuart Hall, Encoding, Decoding, the dominant, oppositional, and negotiated readings,
Talking PointsBy incorporating these basic radio codes into the start of the script, it is clear the writers were trying to make the story sound plausible. According to Baudrillard’s simulation theory, this would be the first stage which is a “reflection of reality”.

The New York Times reported “a wave of mass hysteria seized thousands of radio listeners” with some adults requiring “medical treatment for shock and hysteria”. Apparently, “thousands of persons” phoned different agencies “seeking advice on protective measures against the raids”

The hypodermic needle theory suggests a media text can have a powerful and immediate effect on the passive audience. It would seem “The War of the Worlds” production supports this argument because so many terrified listeners, for example, “rushed out of their houses” to escape the “gas raid”.

The mode of consumption could also explain their lack of awareness. Some listeners may not have been fully engaged with the message because the radio was only background noise while they did other things in the house. However, the special bulletins grabbed their attention long enough for them to think New York was being attacked.
The BBC is often accused of political bias because it seems to reinforce a more liberal ideology. There have been plenty of commentators and government ministers who have called for the institution to be defunded and forced into the private sector to compete against subscription services and other channels which rely on advertising revenues. These critics question why the public should pay a licence fee when we spend most of our time online.

Starting Sentences

Paper 1

War of the Worlds/Newsbeat

The link between producers and audience consumption of radio products is everchanging in society. In this essay I will detail how Newsbeat and War of the Worlds differ in terms of their goals and focuses, in reference to the Ethos of the BBC, Public Service Broadcasting and commercial interest. The need for regulation among radio is a prevalent issue in society and the postmodern approach to the world may cause implosions if this is not the case.



The I/Daily Mail

Newspapers could be said to construct an ideological view of the world to target audiences, and the interests of institutions have rarely changed over time unlike the methods and ideologies conveyed to deliver those interests, such as targeting audiences through needs and uses/gratifications as depicted by Kurevich, Haas and Katz.

Ghost Town/Letter to the Free


Blinded by the Light


Paper 2

Metroid/Tomb Raider/Sims

Audiences of video game products such as Sims or Tomb Raider could be argued to reject or accept ideologies conveyed by media products as a result of media effects theories, and this process is often the product of industrial strategies to mitigate risks as identified by Hesmondhalgh, and the representations of products appealing to the concept of Postmodernism.

Men’s Health/Oh Comely

Although the media form of magazines are on the decline with Iceberg Press going bankrupt in the COVID pandemic, Men’s Health/Oh Comely feature a variety of strategies to appeal to audiences and in turn stay afloat, such as using enigma and proairetic code conceptualised by Barthes to make their products reactionary to the target audiences, allowing a dominant reading to e more easily formed. This has potential to encourage sales by generating interest in the products, leading to a process of commodification to mitigate the risks associated with the magazine media form. In this essay I will explore these concepts in depth and display how they appeal and can be applied to the relevant CSPs.

Deutschland 83/Capital


The Voice/Teen Vogue


Daily Mail and The “I” Re-Visit | Day 6

The Daily Mail: June 6th 2022 (
The “I”: June 6th 2022

The Daily Mail:

Readers want to know what is happening in the world and newspapers try to provide the latest information about the most important stories of the day. The Daily Mail also has plenty of celebrity gossip, entertainment news, business reports, and comprehensive sports coverage to gratify our curiosity.

Gauntletts idea of constructed identity:
By following the inspirational stories and expert advice in these sections, we can improve our mental and physical health, enhance our finances, and keep our style up to date with their “fabulous fashion and beauty ideas”. Page 40 and 41 of the June 6th copy show an “inspire” page displaying cheap products like the “Trinny London, energise me lipgloss”. These can also be seen in the daily mail website with the sub-page “Beauty” as well as “Tv & Showbiz” etc.

Judith Butler Gender Performance:
On page 40 and 41, the pages are obviously targeted towards women, using woman as the models within the pages. As well as female writers being in control of what is featured on the pages, along with this, the “Beauty” page within the Daily mail website “categorised” under the “female” category. This links to how Judith Butler says that the typical performance or action represented by women involving beauty, makeup etc gives them the stereotypical view they have within the Daily Mail.

Hesmonhalgh theory of Profit/Currans idea that “newspapers are driven by imperatives of profit and power”:
This is evident by the fact that “The Daily Mail” covers soft news and hard news, by including a mid-way of both news’ consumers can enjoy each that they like. For example on the June 6th copy of the Daily Mail, the first 35 pages are relating to the late Queen Elizabeth ll, celebrating her 70 years of service for the UK. This news is something that a large majority of the UK can relate on and all enjoy, pushing more sales and happier customers. This displays Hesmondhalghs theory of minimising risk and maximising profits as “The Daily Mail” appealed to more audiences and therefore made more sales.

The “I”:

War of the Worlds and Newsbeat Re-Visit | Day 8

War Of the Worlds:

Hypodermic Needle Theory:
It would seem “The War of the Worlds” production supports the needle theory because so many terrified listeners, for example, “rushed out of their houses” to escape the “gas raid”. This is a direct Indication to how the producers wanted the viewers to react, encompassing Stuart Halls encoding and decoding theory between producers and audiences, where the producer intended for the viewers to be scared, frightened and react drastically.

Gerbners theory of cultivation:
Gerbners theory suggests that people with heavy listening/watching of media are susceptible to its messages.
One army veteran said the radio play “was too realistic for comfort” while another New York resident was “convinced it was the McCoy” when the “names and titles” of different officials, such as the Secretary of the Interior, were mentioned in the script. Both these quotes came from interviews after the Radio show was broadcasted.

Lazarfelds 2 step flow of communication:
A “throng of playgoers had rushed” from a “theatre” because “news” of the invasion had “spread” to the audience. This was reported by “The New York Times” from a manager of the new York theatre. Therefore, not everyone who was terrorised by the radio play was actually listening to the broadcast. They heard the rumours from people they trusted in their social circle.

Stuart Hall, Encoding and decoding:
The audiences knowledge is to blame for the “Panic”, firstly, the show was aired by Columbia Broadcasting Systems (CBS) – one of only two national broadcasters who were trusted by millions of listeners every day to deliver reliable and impartial news. Secondly, since radio was a relatively new form of mass communication, it could also be argued that many listeners lacked the media literacy needed to understand “The War of the Worlds” was a pastiche of its codes and conventions. None of this is the fault of the producers.


Post-modern New Media: